Nuova pagina 1


Italian Home Contacts Credits ISSN
Urban Suffering Studies Center



The no-violent trasformation of conflicts

Nuova pagina 1


Johan Galtung


SYSTEMS: A Reorientation

[1] Transarmament: States use armies for defense, and for offense, for wars. Si vis pacem, para
bellum, peace through security tries to cover both; but offensive military threatens, provokes arms
races, even wars. Si vis pacem para pacem, security through peace is not disarmament leaving
regions, states and local level defense-less; rather, it identifies conflicts and traumas underlying
violence in order to solve them, builds peaceful state relations, and defensive defense "just in case".

[2] Nonalignment: Solidarity and help to victims of aggression should be based on the merits of
the case, not by alliance membership. This implies NATO and EU transarmament to regional
defensive defense, and UN world collective defense under representative military command.

[3] Being useful to other countries: having developed positive relations such that others want to
enhance, not destroy the country. There are many ways: through mutually beneficial trade, tourism
for nature or culture, through support when suffering attacks, or social and natural catastrophes, by
serving as experts in peace-building.

[4] Being less vulnerable: political-military decentralization so that aggression against any sector-
part does not paralyze the whole country; resistance, and much normal life, can be continued.

Economic self-reliance, especially energy/food-self-sufficiency only as a possibility in
emergencies-not to be tempted into attacking others if trade fails, keeping economic sectors-
primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary for reproduction-intact; producing for basic needs at home
as much as possible, getting the rest through trade.

Defense against spying by not having secrets; transarmament works openly, to prevent and deter. A
more cooperative, less competitive economy (more cooperatives, less companies); inviting others to


ALTERNATIVE: Building Peace

[5] Conflict resolution. Conflict means incompatible goals; conflict resolution means making goals
compatible in an acceptable and sustainable way. The method is dialogue with all parties to map
goals and test them for legitimacy; then try to bridge legitimate goals through compromise or by
creating some new reality. Making solution orientation a part of the culture and media; not just
"winning". Massive education-practice for domestic-global conflict resolution.

[6] Trauma reconciliation. Clearing the past by revisiting traumatic events, acknowledging
wrongs done, dialogue about why it happened, building peaceful futures together; making
reconciliation orientation a part of the culture and media; not just "forgetting". Massive education-
practice for domestic-global trauma reconciliation.

[7] Empathy for harmony. Promoting knowledge of how the world looks from the angle of the
other gender, generations, races, classes, nations, states, regions, civilizations-professions like
business, military, religion, politics-not only one's own angle; capability to suffer the suffering of
others and to enjoy the joy of others, for harmony. Understanding their traumas and glories is a
major part of education in geography and history in the age of globalization.


[8] Cooperation. Building projects for mutual and equal benefit, also across conflict borders and
faultlines in general, for parity among genders, generations, races and nations, states and regions,
civilizations, and for massive reduction of inequality.

Politically that calls for regionalization, one state one vote.

Militarily that calls for solidarity within and between regions.

Economically that calls for transactions with equal long term side-effects, like challenge to develop
further and to the environment.

Culturally that calls for more than tolerance: for dialogue based on mutual respect and curiosity, and
for openness to mutual learning.


DEFENSE: Defensive Defense

[9] Non-offensive, non-provocative, only deploying weapons one would tolerate in others, limited
to defense; not offense, attack, war. This calls for short-range arms and platforms; ditches that can
be made unbridgeable, mining fields, armed vehicles, PGMs, MTBs, coast artillery, helicopters, air
defense also by beams; for defense only.

[10] Conventional Military Defense, to mark land, sea and air borders, neither provoking arms
races, nor instilling fear of war.

[11] Para-Military Defense, militia, locally based and supported, using guerrilla tactics, prepared
for the long haul.

[12] Non-Military Defense, preparing, training the population[i] for massive civil
disobedience/non-cooperation with any illegitimate regime imposed on the country, cooperating
with CMD and PMD above.

[13] A MINISTRY OF PEACE for coordination of as many steps on as many of the 12 points
above as possible; sections and sub-sections as indicated. Could be under the Prime Minister's

A country based on security through peace, nonaligned, useful to others, invulnerable, mediating
relevant conflicts and traumas, high on empathy and equitable projects, only non-provocative arms,
prepared to defend its borders and any part of its territory with military and nonmilitary defense and
a Ministry of Peace; attack very unlikely.

A country with long range military, aggressive alliances, useless, vulnerable, with victory as
approach to conflict and amnesia to traumas inflicted, autistic, exploitative, no defensive defense,
with no Ministry of Peace; attack, and being attacked, likely. Most countries are mixes.

A country with high scores is not only more secure but a gift to the world, surrounded by expanding
circles of friendship; one with low scores is a threat, surrounded by enemies. Switzerland in Europe
and Nepal in Asia are high-score countries almost never attacked; EU in Europe and ASEAN in
Asia are examples of regions with wars (almost) unthinkable.


Bookmark and Share

Center for urban suffering

The study centre wishes to study the phenomenon of urban suffering, in other words the suffering that is specific to the great metropolises. Urban Suffering is a category that describes the meeting of individual suffering with the social fabric that they inhabit. The description, the understanding and the transformation of the psychological and social dynamics that develop from the meeting of ...

Who we are

The Urban Suffering Studies Center - SOUQ - arises from Milan, a place of complexity and economic and social contradictions belonged to global world.Tightly linked to Casa della Carità Foundation, which provides assistance and care to unserved populations in Milan (such as immigrants legal and illegal, homeless, vulnerable minorities), the Urban Suffering Studies Center puts attention on ...


Centro studi Souq Management commitee: Laura Arduini, Virginio Colmegna (presidente), Silvia Landra, Simona Sambati, Benedetto Saraceno ; Scientific commitee: Mario Agostinelli, Angelo Barbato, Maurizio Bonati, Adolfo Ceretti, Giacomo Costa, Ota de Leonardis,  Giulio Ernesti, Sergio Escobar, Luca Formenton, Francesco Maisto, Ambrogio Manenti, Claudia Mazzucato, Daniela ...
< Ultimo aggiornamento
  Editorials   Theory waiting for practice   Practice waiting for theory   Papers   References  

Nuova pagina 1

ISSN 2282-5754 Souquaderni [online] by SOUQ - Centro Studi sulla Sofferenza Urbana - CF: 97316770151
Last update: 28/10/2019

[Area riservata]